“Reflections on Headrick Chap. 5”

gutenbergThe Gutenberg Bible is important not only because it is the first large printed book of the western culture but also because it revolutionized the culture and the concept of education of that time. Before this precious invention, the books were something accessible only to few. But thanks to the mind of a German goldsmith the print became the primary tool of disseminating culture, give access to knowledge and bringing men out of the dark ages. Building on his experience with metals, Gutenberg organized in a new way an alloy of lead and metal from which it was possible to extract/create individual characters able to be reusable each time. Each of those characters differently arranged under a press would create various result on the sheet. Gutenberg’s invention of the printing with movable type was initially utilized in prints of calendars, grammars book, and indulgences. Gutenberg’s innovation, however, reached its top pick when he had to create complex and voluminous books which culminated with his masterpiece the Bible. The Bible consist of two volumes, the Old and New Testament, which were both printed originally on rag papers – parchment in fiber – and successively printed on hemp imported from Italy.




Pozzolana’s discovery may be thought of one of the extraordinary steps into the progress of ancient constructions product of concrete. Although its development is typically attributed to the Romans, its use is seen in earlier works throughout the X sec. by Phoenicians and Israelites largely in hydraulic constructions.

In effect, the potable water tanks engineered by King Salomon in Jerusalem were protected by an external material made of the Pozzolana lime. However, the role of the Romans is vital because they utilized pozzolana rationally and perpetually, subbing the natural sand with this Pulvis Puteolana The Colosseum , typical of the area around Pozzuoli (that is additional the origin of the name itself Pozzolana).

The Romans were able to grasp the peculiar consistency of pozzolana, this volcanic ashes that combined with lime would create a new texture able to become hard underwater and thus be useful in constructions designed to carry/conduct water itself.  The Romans discovered that pozzolana was invariably present in areas around inactive volcanos not simply in Italy but throughout the emperors and its ability to be combined with baked clay in different forms – such as tiles, bricks. In most of their works, the Romans utilized concrete to fill the spaces between bricks or stones.

Two major Romans’ constructions made of concrete are incredibly noted because they are still intact and which proves the durability of the used materials during its completion: the Pont Du Guard in Nimes, France, and the Pantheon in Rome which are respectively a hydraulic engineering work and an architectonic construction.


The Pont Du Guard in France was a part of a water conduit about 50 Km long that was carrying water from the city of Uzes to Nimes.


The Pantheon in Rome, it is not only an architectonic masterpiece well-known worldwide for its perfection and wonder but also because it is one among the oldest constructions left to us today to admire from the Romans’ culture.

The Pozzolana


The Blombos cave

The Blombos’ cave takes archeologists and scientists back on the analysis of the evolution of the cognitive capabilities of the Homo Sapiens to re-evaluate the information used to create the same theory that leads to us.

The Blombos’s cave is a prehistoric site of the South Africa State carved into a limestone cliff that overlooks the Indian Ocean. The cave was frequented used, intermittently, by Stone Age men for about 140,000 years and it became famous in 1993 when Dr. Henshilwood discovered some important stone artifacts. These artifacts were symmetrical spearheads about 20,000 years old. Inside the cave, were also found some shells used as containers to mix a base of ocher color, dated about 100,000 years ago. In the shells, it was found a veneer of bright red powder, dried remains of a colorful mixture made by mixing red ochre, seal bones, coal, quartzite, and water. Along with the shells, the researchers also found animal bones probably used to collect color.


The artifacts discovered in the cave shed new light on the evolution of cognitive abilities of our species occurred long before then we have theorized. The search for the concept of beauty – like art, music, sculpture, paint – has a new historically Genesis that need to be readdressed.


The Blombos cave